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Jahm and the Laying of the Foundation of Theological Schools
Jahm b. Safwan Samarqandi (d. 128 AH) was an Arab of the Bani Rasib tribe who migrated to Khurasan and joined the company of the emir Harith b. Surayj and took part in the widespread uprising against the Bani Marwan. Apart from his deep-seated belief in the practice of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil very little is known about Jahm’s views, the only accounts of which are scattered in the writings of his opponents. According to Ash`ari, Jahm had a deep aversion to tashbih (anthropomorphism) and thus saw as inappropriate the use of the term shay’ (thing; object) in reference to God. He also considered the Quran as created, believed that God was the real agent behind men’s actions, and deemed faith as solely consisting of the knowledge of God. It is difficult to paint a clear picture of Jahm’s views owing to his early date. However, this much may be asserted that his was a straightforward theological system founded on the three key notions of the tawhid of divine attributes, determinism, and irja’. Jahm had a circle of followers the remnants of which could still be found in Tirmidh into the 4th century AH. However, it should be noted that during the 2nd and 3rd centuries AH Jahmite was a term of denigration and many of those who have been given this title in biobibliographical sources are those who held similar, and not identical, views as Jahm. Jahm’s uncomplicated views on the subject of divine attributes, as compared with later theories, prompted historians to paint a picture of him as an extremist who denied all attributes to God and one who subscribed to the notion of ta`til.

Ja`d b. Dirham (d. 118 AH) was a Basri contemporary of Jahm who ranks with him among the first founders of simple theological schools. Ja`d may be considered as being of the same opinion as Jahm with regard to the created-ness (khalq) of the Quran, not withstanding minor details. However, unlike Jahm, on the subject of qadar, Ja`d adopted a non-fatalist position, underscoring human free will. In historical sources, Ja`d’s name appears next to that of Jahm as among the proponents of the khalq of the Quran.

source: Pakatchi , Ahmad "Islam Entry" The Great Islamic Encyclopedia. Ed. Kazem Musavi Bojnourdi.Tehran: The Center of Great Islamic Encyclopaedia , 1989-, V.8 ,pp 428
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