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Introduction
Following the codification of the entire range of issues relating to the principles of fiqh in the 4th and 5th centuries AH by usuli scholars of various schools, the discussion in Sunni works of the subject became confined to the glossing and amplification of the ideas of the predecessors. During this post-systematization period many discussions in connection with `ilm al-usul had taken on a theoretical aspect, far from any practical applications. Without delving into the issue of the termination of ijtihad it should be noted that attempts, during this period, to steer clear of personal judgment (ijtihad) was the factor responsible for this turn of events. In contrast to the atmosphere of antipathy toward ijtihad characterizing Sunni fiqhi circles, the Shi`ite jurisprudence, in the later centuries, continued its dynamic development towards new vistas in fiqhi investigation.
* source: Pakatchi , Ahmad "Islam Entry" The Great Islamic Encyclopedia. Ed. Kazem Musavi Bojnourdi.Tehran: The Center of Great Islamic Encyclopaedia , 1989-, V.8 ,pp.453
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