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The Emergence of Islamic Sciences
 
Iranians have throughout the course of history played an active role in the cultural developments of the world and the Islamic sciences have been no exception. A glance at the history of Qur’anic sciences, hadith (Prophetic Traditions), and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) clearly indicates that Iranian scholars have played a major role in the development and spread of these sciences to the extent that in the area of Prophetic traditions, the compilers of the four most reliable hadith books of the Ithnā Ashari Shiites as well as the six Sehāh of the Sunnis were all, without exception, Iranians.

Concurrently with the spread of Islam in Iran the Prophetic traditions, too, spread throughout the Iranian land through the early narrators of these traditions who were the companions of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (s). As per historical records, in the year 51 AH/671 AD and during the governorship of Rabi’ bin Ziyād in Khorāsān, about five thousand of the people of Kufa and Basra migrated to Khorāsān among whom there were some disciples of the Prophet (s) like Barideh bin Hasib and Abu Barzah Aslami. The descendents of the early migrants, the most prominent of whom were Abdollah bin Barideh (d. 115 AH/733 AD) and a number of other scholars like Zeid bin Wahab Jahni of Āzarbājān, Akrameh Molā bin Abbās, and Yahyā bin Ya’mar of Khorāsān, who had migrated from Iraq and Hejāz to Iran for varying reasons were the founders of a school of thought in Iran related to the recording and spreading of hadith, which prepared the grounds for the emergence of the religious circles of the eastern Islamic territories.
Similarly, some important cultural centers had emerged in the central areas of Iran like Rey, Esfahān, Qazvin, and Hamadān in the early 2nd Century AH/8th Century AD whose prominent personalities were Isā bin Mahān and Jarir bin Abd al-Hamid Rāzi. In the same breath, mention must also be made of the city of Kufa that was home to a large number of Iranian mawālis who played a significant role in the emergence of the Iranian culture because of their pre-Islamic historical background.
 
* source: Pakatchi , Ahmad " Iran Entry " The Great Islamic Encyclopedia . Ed. Kazem Musavi Bojnourdi.Tehran: The Center of Great Islamic Encyclopaedia , 1989-, V.10 , pp.654
 
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