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The Post-Samanid Period
The Samanid rule was brought to an end by the Qarakhanids in 389 AH (999 AD). The latter, who had established a strong Islamic state in Turkistan, in the 4th century AH, encountered very little resistance in their conquest of Transoxiana.
In 536 AH (1142 AD), the non-Muslim Qarakhtay, who had recently established their sway over Turkistan, came to extend their power to Transoxiana, a development that remained in force until 612 AH (1215 AD), in spite of the existing religious incongruity. The newcomers came to accept the Islamic identity of the region and, through their retaining of the Qarakhanid rulers, gave free rein to the Muslims of the region in terms of their religious practices.
In 616 AH, Transoxiana fell under the dominion of the Mongols, where a new state with an Islamic identity was built upon the ruins of the Qarakhanid civilization, referred to in the historical sources as the Chagatai government, one which exerted a deep influence on the cultural developments of Transoxiana and Turkistan for several centuries to come. Sufism, which had for long been thriving in the region, came to enjoy wider popularity after the advent of the Mongols, so much so that it may be assumed that the Islam as was known in Transoxiana was in fact more of a Sufi version of Islam and that the fiqhi type of the religion had very few proponents.
The most prominent Sufi orders in the region were the Kubrawiyyah, attributed to Najm al-Din Kubra Khwarazmi, and the Naqshbandiyyah, attributed to Baha’ al-Din Naqshband Bukhari, centered in Khwarazm and Bukhara, respectively. There flourished other Sufi orders, such as the Yasawiyyah, scattered throughout the region, and the Qadiriyyah and the Chishtiyyah, in Farghanah.
* source: Pakatchi , Ahmad "Islam Entry" The Great Islamic Encyclopedia. Ed. Kazem Musavi Bojnourdi.Tehran: The Center of Great Islamic Encyclopaedia , 1989-, V.8 , pp.514 - 515
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